A footnote about ESP8266 5V tolerance

05.05.2022 16:28

The other day I've been reading the instructions for a project involving the ESP8266 chip. In the part that describes connecting one of the ESP8266's GPIO pins to a 5V logic level line this comment stuck out:

As the ESP8266 is 5V-tolerant, [...] there shouldn't be any issues, however I haven't had time to test this for longer periods of time. Therefore, if the ESP burns out after a while, just add a voltage divider or something.

It never occurred to me that the GPIO pins of the ESP8266 would be able to work with 5V levels directly. I've done a few projects with this IC and I always considered it a purely 3.3V device that requires a level shifter to work with 5V logic. Normally, 5V tolerance of pins is advertised in some prime real estate in a microcontroller datasheet. On the other hand, ESP8266's datasheet doesn't mention it explicitly. Even the specification of voltage levels for digital IO is kind of vague about it:

From the "Digital IO Pads" section of the ESP8266 datasheet.

Image by Espressif Systems

The table says that the maximum input voltage for a high logic level on a digital pin is 3.6V. However the paragraph below also talks about pins having some protection against over voltage. My understanding is that there's a circuit that shunts current from a pin to ground when the pin voltage reaches 6V, similar to a Zener diode. Snap-back might be a mistranslation of fold-back. In any case, the difference between 6V breakdown and 5.8V hold voltage doesn't seem that significant. What good is this protection if the maximum allowed voltage is only 3.6V?

After searching the web a bit I came across a 2016 post on Hackaday. The article and comments give a good overview of what's known about this. In short, official documentation is vague, experience on the topic is mixed but many people believe that pins are indeed 5V tolerant.

I wanted to quickly check this. As people discussed in the Hackaday comments, a digital pin that only accepts voltages up to the supply voltage will normally have an ESD protection diode connected from the pin to the supply. Such a pin will start sinking current when voltage on it exceeds supply plus a diode voltage drop. That is where the typical 3.6V specification for VIH maximum comes from: a 3.3V supply plus 0.3V Schottky diode drop. On the other hand, a pin that can tolerate higher voltages will instead have a Zener diode to ground, or some other circuit that performs a similar function. In that case, the pin will only sink current at higher voltages.

I connected a spare ESP-01 module to my curve tracer. I measured the I-V curve of the GPIO2 pin since that one is not connected to any external pull-up or pull-down resistors on this module. The module was powered from a development board with a 3.3V supply voltage. I used a simple Arduino program that just called pinMode(2, INPUT). This ensured that the pin was set to high impedance and not sourcing or sinking current, except for any protection circuit on it.

Measurements of the ESP8266 digital pad with a curve tracer, forward polarity.

This was the result of my measurement. In the forward polarity the pin started sinking significant current at around 6.6V. The slight current ramp at lower voltages is an artifact of my instrument and isn't a real current sinking into the pin.

I didn't see any fold-back characteristic. However I was using a 1 kΩ load resistance on the curve tracer. The load resistance prevents a rapid current increase during the measurement. This might have prevented the fold-back circuit from working and I didn't want to risk the chip by going to higher currents. In any case, the 6.6V threshold strongly points towards the pin not having an ESD diode to the supply line and hence being intentionally designed to handle higher voltages than 3.6V.

Measurements of the ESP8266 digital pad with a curve tracer, reverse polarity.

In the reverse polarity, the pin started to source current at around 0.5V, as expected for an internal diode connected from the pin to ground. This diode is also mentioned in the datasheet.

In conclusion, it seems that indeed the digital pins on the ESP8266 have provisions for tolerating voltages higher than the supply. This doesn't necessarily mean that they will also work reliably at those voltages. Even if they will, I would still want to avoid using 5V levels directly. The ESP8266 bootloader likes to put various pins in output mode. A 5V level on a 3.3V-powered output pin is certainly not healthy, regardless of whether the pin tolerates such a level in input mode.

This slide deck from ST goes into some more detail on how 5V-tolerant pins are implemented internally and lists some pitfalls associated with their use. Though I have no idea if Espressif used the same implementation approach as ST.

Posted by Tomaž | Categories: Analog | Comments »

Waveform display bug in the LA104

29.03.2022 18:44

I recently picked up a Miniware LA104, a small 4 channel logic analyzer. I thought a stand-alone, battery powered logic analyzer might be useful in some cases, especially since it comes with built-in protocol decoding for I2C. I have a few random USB-connected logic analyzers in a drawer somewhere, but I found that I rarely use them. When I do need a logic analyzer I tend not to have a PC at hand with all the necessary software setup, I don't want to risk the laptop by connecting it to a possibly malfunctioning device or there's a suitable oscilloscope nearby that works well enough for the purpose.

The first test I did with LA104 fresh out of the box was to connect all of its 4 channels to a 100 kHz square-wave signal and run a capture. I was disappointed to see that the displayed digital waveform had occasional random glitches that were certainly not there in the real signal. 100 kHz frequency of the input signal was well below the 100 MHz sampling frequency of the LA104, so no undersampling should occur either:

Miniware LA104 displaying waveform with glitches.

Interestingly, when exporting the captured waveform to a comma-separated value (CSV) file using the function built into the stock firmware and displaying it in PulseView, the glitches were not visible anymore:

The captured 100 kHz waveform displayed in PulseView.

This suggested that the waveform capture was working correctly and that the glitches were somehow only introduced when drawing the waveform onto the LA104's LCD screen. Considering that this device was released back in 2018 it's unlikely there will be another firmware update from the manufacturer. However since the source for the firmware is publicly available, I thought I might look into this and see if there's a simple fix for this bug.

For the sake of completeness, I was using firmware version 1.03, which came preloaded on my device and is also the latest publicly available version from Miniware at this time. I'm aware that there exists also an alternative open source firmware for LA104 by Gabonator on GitHub. However that project seems to be focused on various other, non-logic-analyzer uses for the hardware. A quick diff of the logic analyzer app in Gabonator's firmware against the Miniware's source release showed that logic analyzer functionality hasn't received any significant changes or bug fixes.

Looking at the Save_Csv() function in the firmware source, it appears that the CSV export directly dumps the internal representation of the waveform into a file. The exported file for the 100 kHz waveform looked something like the following:

Time(nS), CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4,

First column is the time interval in nanoseconds while the rest of the columns show the logic state of the four input channels. It's interesting that the first column is not a timestamp. The CSV also does not contain all input samples, rather it only lists the detected changes in input states. The first column contains the time interval for which the channels were held in the listed state after the last change. In other words, the LA104 internally compresses the captured samples using run-length encoding.

In the example above, it means that all four channels were in the logic 0 state for 4990 ns, followed by all four channels in the logic 1 state for 4990 ns, and so on. This timing checks out since it corresponds roughly to the 100 kHz frequency of the input signal. Note also that all intervals are multiples of 10 ns - this makes sense since the 100 MHz sampling rate makes for a sampling period of 10 ns. The export function simply multiplies the sample run length by 10 to get the time interval in ns.

Inspecting the part of the CSV export where the LA104 displays the glitches gives a hint to where the problem might be:


The highlighted lines show that the logic analyzer detected that some channels changed state one sample time before others. That is fine and not very surprising. I'm not expecting all channels to change state perfectly in sync down to the nanosecond scale. This can be due to slightly different wire lengths, stray capacitances and so on.

It seems however that the waveform drawing routines on the LA104 do not handle this situation well. At the scale of the display, the 10 ns delay is much less than one display pixel, so it should not even be visible. However for some reason LA104 chooses to display this short transitional state and then ignores the next, much longer stable state altogether. This leads to the waveform seemingly skipping cycles on the display: in the first instance channels 3 and 4 stay in logic 1 state for a cycle when they should go to logic 0; in the second instance channels 1 and 3 stay in logic 0 state for a cycle when they should go to logic 1.

Waveform on the LA104 with highlighted glitches.

In fact, the glitch disappears if I zoom enough into the part of the waveform where the missing edge should be. This suggests that this is indeed some kind of a failed attempt at skipping over signal transitions that are shorter than one display pixel:

Glitch disappears when zoomed into the missing edge.

Looking deeper into what might be causing this led me to the ShowWaveToLCD() function, which seems to be called whenever the waveform on the screen needs to be refreshed. Unfortunately, this function only seems to send some instructions to the FPGA and not much else.

LA104 consists of a STM32F103-series ARM microcontroller and an FPGA. The FPGA is used for waveform capture while the microcontroller handles the user interface. According to the public schematic, both the FPGA and the ARM are connected via a shared bus to the LCD. Hence it seems feasible that the waveform drawing is done directly from the FPGA. This was still a bit surprising to me, since everything else on the screen seems to be drawn by the code running on the ARM. Probably drawing the waveform directly from the FPGA was faster and led to a more responsive user interface.

Unfortunately, this means that fixing the waveform display bug would require modifying the FPGA bitstream. Its source is not public as far as I know. Even if it were, apparently building the bitstream requires a bunch of proprietary software. In any case, there's not much hope in getting this fixed in a simple way. It should be possible to write a new function that does the waveform drawing from ARM, but that would require more effort than I'm prepared to sink into fixing this issue. In the end it might turn out to be too slow anyway.

I'm afraid LA104 will end up gathering dust in a drawer with my other logic analyzers. A logic analyzer for me is primarily a debugging tool, but a tool that misleads me by showing problems that are not there is worse than having no tool at all. I might find some use for it for capturing signal traces for later off-line analysis on a PC, since so far that seems to work reliably. Other than that, sadly I don't see myself using it much in the future.

Posted by Tomaž | Categories: Code | Comments »

Effect of ground cutout on the CM4 antenna

10.03.2022 11:16

Recently I had the opportunity to test how much the design of the carrier board affects the performance of the PCB antenna on the Raspberry Pi Compute Module 4. I compared a custom carrier board with the CM4 centered over a continuous ground plane, a similar board with the suggested ground cutout under the antenna and the official Raspberry Pi CMIO4 board that has the cutout, but also places the module on the edge of the board. I recorded the RSSI of the Wi-Fi signal in different locations using these carrier boards. I found that the cutout only improves RSSI by around 3 dB on average. Both custom boards performed significantly worse than CMIO4.

PCB antenna on the Raspberry Pi CM4.

One of the improvements of the Raspberry Pi Compute Module 4 over the Compute Module 3 is the on-module Wi-Fi radio interface with a built-in antenna. The antenna on the module provides basic wireless connectivity without requiring any external components. However the Compute Module is not a stand-alone device and the quality of Wi-Fi reception is affected by the design of the carrier board the module sits on. Ground plane on the carrier board and any other components placed near the antenna will change its properties and hence the losses in signal transmission and reception.

Figure 11 from patent CN110770975A.

Image by Proant Ltd

This is Figure 11 from patent CN110770975A. The antenna on the CM4 is similar to ones shipped on other Raspberry Pi boards with on-board wireless interfaces, like the Zero W and Raspberry Pi 3. It consists of a triangular slot etched into the copper layers of the PCB with a few tiny SMT capacitors soldered on top. The copper pattern forms a resonant cavity antenna with resonances at 2.4 and 5 GHz. The design has been licensed by the Raspberry Pi Foundation from the Swedish company Proant AB. This antenna design is currently marketed by Proant under the trademark name Niche. The original patent is in Chinese, however Google Patents has a good English translation that references the figures in the Chinese document. Some professional measurements of the VSWR and the radiation pattern are also available from Antenna Test Lab.

Figure 4 from the Compute Module 4 datasheet.

Image by Raspberry Pi Trading Ltd

The datasheet for the Compute Module 4 suggests that an external antenna be used where possible. Otherwise it suggests that the carrier board should ideally have at least an 8 x 15 mm cutout in the ground planes under the antenna and that the antenna be oriented towards the edge of the device.

Ground plane cutout for the antenna on CMIO4 carrier board.

The picture above shows the official CMIO4 development board for CM4. As you can see, it follows both of these these recommendations. However many carrier boards in the wild do not include the ground cutout and/or place the board somewhere in the middle of the carrier PCB. The datasheet suggests that the designer checks the performance of the antenna on their specific design, but doesn't go into further detail on how to do that.

I recently had the opportunity to test the antenna performance on two custom carrier boards where the only major difference between them was that Board A had the recommended 8 x 15 mm ground plane cutout and the Board B did not. More precisely, Board B had ground and power planes and signal layers without any consideration for the antenna. Board A maintained the 8 x 15 mm keep-out area recommended by the datasheet on all layers. No copper planes or traces were present inside this area. I also had a stock Raspberry Pi CMIO4 board at hand for comparison.

Carrier board A with a continuous ground plane.

Carrier board B with ground cutout under the antenna.

Both custom boards placed the Compute Module 4 in the middle of a larger PCB, with the PCB extending approximately 47 mm beyond the edge of the CM4 with the antenna pattern. They used the mating connector with 1.5 mm stacking height. I can't disclose the details of the design, so I'm only sharing a rough sketch of the important dimensions. The carrier board shape was more complicated than shown. The boards had the CM4 mounted on the top side, while all other SMT components were on the bottom side. Wi-Fi reception was tested without any enclosure and apart from the carrier board PCB there were no other parts near the antenna.

My test consisted of taking one board, placing it in a specific location relative to the wireless access point, turning it on and recording the RSSI on both the Compute Module 4 (station - STA) and the wireless access point (AP). I fixed the transmit power on both sides using the set txpower command. I then turned it off and repeated the measurement for all locations. I repeated the sequence for all boards. Locations were in different rooms in a brick building and had different orientations of the antenna relative to the access point. I took care that at each location the antenna was oriented consistently for all boards. Access point was a TP-Link Archer C5 and wasn't moved during the measurements. The measurements were done in the 2.4 GHz band.


function measure {

	ssh $HOST 'N=0
	while [ $N -lt '$NMEAS' ]; do
		iw dev '$DEV' info
		iw dev '$DEV' station dump
		sleep 1
	done' > $FN

ssh $HOST_D "iw dev $DEV_D set txpower fixed 1800"

sleep 120

measure $HOST_D $DEV_D $FN_D&
measure $HOST_A $DEV_A $FN_A&


The gist of the script I used for the measurement is above. It takes 100 samples of the RSSI using the station dump command in 1 second intervals from both the access point and the station. The 120 second sleep after setting the TX power is there because I found on previous experiments that on some wireless adapters it takes some time for the TX power command to take effect. I think this pause is not necessary for CM4, but I left it in the script just to be sure. From the TX power reported by the info command it appeared that the TX power on both sides was indeed fixed at the set levels.

RSSI measured at the wireless LAN access point.

RSSI measured at the Compute Module 4.

In the plots above, the solid horizontal lines show the mean RSSI for each location and carrier board. Apart from the mean value, the distribution of the 100 RSSI samples is also shown in the form of a violin plot. Top figure shows RSSI reported by the access point and the bottom figure shows RSSI reported by the Compute Module 4. Higher RSSI means better reception.

The results show that Board B with the cutout consistently outperformed Board A without the cutout. The difference isn't large however, only about 3 dB on average. Similarly, CMIO4 consistently outperformed Board B. The difference was larger here and varied quite a lot by location. On location 3 it was as large as 17 dB on both sides of the connection. On average the difference was around 8 dB.

TX bitrate reported by the wireless LAN access point.

Bitrates selected by both the access point and the Compute Module 4 depend on the quality of signal reception as well. On average, the transmit bitrates on the access point were around 16 Mbit/s higher with Board B than Board A. Bitrates on CMIO4 were around 18 Mbit/s higher than with Board B. Again there was a lot variation between locations. However the bitrates might have been also affected by interference from other traffic on the 2.4 GHz band, not just antenna performance.

In conclusion, it seems that the addition of the cutout helps somewhat with the antenna performance. However judging by the fact that the difference between CMIO4 and Board B with the cutout was higher, it seems that the recommendation that the antenna is placed on the edge of the circuit board is more important than the cutout itself.

It's hard to say what these numbers mean in practical use, in terms of connection reliability. Let's assume that in free space Board A can operate reliably some distance from the access point. Then Board B with 3 dB better reception would be able to operate at the same reliability at a distance 140% larger than Board A. Similarly, 8 dB difference for CMIO4 translates to around 250% larger maximum distance. In a building with walls the effect is hard to predict. From other experiments I've done I can say that the CMIO4 performance is comparable to a typical half-wave dipole antenna, at least using this method.

The only apparent problem I've seen during my testing was that the Compute Module 4 had problems associating with the Wi-Fi network on Board A on location 2. Two or three attempts were usually necessary to get network connectivity. Otherwise the wireless network seemed to work fine for a usable ssh connection.

The exact results would very likely differ for a different design of the carrier board or a different choice of locations, so I think these numbers only give a rough idea of what the effect of the cutout is in general. It would be interesting to get some reflection measurements as well using a VNA. Unfortunately the few CM4s I have available are quite precious since it's very hard to get new ones at the moment. Connecting the antenna to the VNA would require some, very likely destructive, modifications to the module to connect a coax cable to the antenna. Because of this I only did what measurements I could using the stock radio present on the module.

Posted by Tomaž | Categories: Analog | Comments »

Comparing RF Demo Kits

10.09.2021 15:48

Earlier this year I was writing about the RF Demo Kit. It's a small circuit board with a sample of different radio frequency circuits that's sold as a learning tool. Among other things it includes a set of on-board short, open and load calibration standards. I was using these standards on the RF Demo Kit for VNA calibration when measuring antennas with U.FL connectors since I lack a better U.FL calibration kit. Having a better model of calibration standards leads to more accurate measurements and in the previous blog post I wrote about measuring some of the model parameters.

At the time I managed characterize the fringing capacitance C0 = 0.58 pF of the open standard on the RF Demo Kit. When I mentioned my measurements on the NanoVNA forum, it was pointed out to me that at least two versions of the RF Demo Kit exist and that the other version might have better characteristics due to the different PCB layout. Since I recently improved my home-made VNA, I decided to revisit this measurement and see if the second RF Demo Kit indeed shows different characteristics.

SOLT standards on the NWDZ RF Demo Kit.

Here is a close-up of the SOLT standards on the NWDZ Rev-01-10 RF Demo Kit. This is the board I measured in my earlier blog post. The load standard is a 0603 size SMT chip resistor. It measures 50.0 Ω at DC. Short and open standards are terminated directly at the U.FL connector, which means they have a different delay compared to the load standard. The substrate looks like a typical 1.6 mm thick FR-4.

SOLT standards on the Deepelec RF Demo Kit.

This is the other board mentioned in the NanoVNA forum, the Deepelec RF Demo Kit. Here the load standard is a smaller, 0402 size SMT chip resistor. It also measures 50.0 Ω at DC.

All three standards are terminated after an approximately 2 mm long trace. Compared to the NWDZ Demo Kit, this forms a more consistent calibration plane. The trace is covered in solder resist, which isn't ideal. The dimensions of the trace and gap to ground seem to be slightly different between the standards. The substrate looks identical to the other board, also most likely a 1.6 mm thick FR-4.

Compared to the NWDZ Demo Kit, U.FL connectors have thermal reliefs around their ground pads. Using thermal reliefs is usually discouraged in high frequency circuits.

My measurement setup for characterizing the RF Demo Kits.

I again used my home-made VNA for the measurements. I connected the RF Demo Kits to the VNA using a 20 cm SS405 coax and a reasonably expensive U.FL-to-SMA adapter. I measured at the frequency span from 500 to 3000 MHz. The VNA was calibrated at its port using a SMA calibration kit I wrote about previously. I applied port extension to null out the effects of the coax using the same method I described in the earlier blog post about RF Demo Kits.

In general, this setup yielded much more accurate results as before. The new version of my VNA has significantly better characteristics in terms of the dynamic range and phase noise. The SS405 coax with the U.FL-to-SMA adapter also performed much better and gives more consistent results than the 20 cm RG-316 pigtail I used previously. Compared to my earlier measurements the new ones look cleaner and with less random noise.

Smith chart for the NWDZ Demo Kit with port extension.

This is how the open, short and load standards measure on the NWDZ RF Demo Kit. Ideally, the standards should have 1, -1 and 0 reflectivity respectively and the plots should just be dots on the Smith chart. Due to various imperfections however the plots spread out from their ideal values as frequency increases.

Fitting a capacitance value to the measurement of the open standard gives a value of C0 = 0.57 pF. This is very close to the 0.58 pF figure I got in my previous measurement.

The load standard has more than 13.5 dB return loss up to 3 GHz. In my previous measurement I've seen return loss down to 12 dB.

Smith chart for the Deepelec Demo Kit with port extension.

The measurement of the Deepelec RF Demo Kit shows a similar picture, but differs in a few details. The calculated one-way time delay for the port extension was 30 ps longer compared to the NWDZ kit. 30 ps is equivalent to 9 mm in free space. This seems too large for the 2 mm line seen on the PCB, even when accounting for a reasonable velocity factor. There might be some other effects here or maybe it's just an error in my measurement.

Fitting a capacitor to the open standard yields C0 = 0.54 pF. The value is similar to the one I get for the NWDZ Demo Kit, however this fit is worse near 3 GHz. On the Smith chart, the trace for the NWDZ open increases in phase in a linear fashion with very little deviation from the ideal capacitor characteristic. On the other hand the trace for Deepelec open folds back at itself and makes a loop near 3 GHz.

Interestingly, the match of the load standard is slightly worse than with the NWDZ board. The worst return loss is 11.9 dB. I would expect the physically smaller 0402 resistor to behave better at higher frequencies.

Smith chart for the SMA calibration kit with port extension.

For comparison, this the same measurement done with the SMA calibration kit connected to the end of the same 20 cm SS405 cable (although with a SMA-to-SMA adapter instead of the U.FL-to-SMA). You can see that all 3 standards are much better defined compared to the two Demo Kits. The port extension comes out at exactly 1.00 ns, which is roughly consistent with the 20 cm length of the cable and the 0.7 velocity factor for SS405.

Setup for measuring the thru on Demo Kits.

I also measured these same three SMA standards by connecting them using a short U.FL pigtail and the thru on both Demo Kits. This way I wanted to get an estimate of the quality of the thrus on these boards since I can't measure them directly with my one-port VNA.

Measurements of the thru on the NWDZ Demo Kit.

Compare this measurement with the case above where the SMA calibration standards were connected directly to the 20 cm SS405 cable without the NWDZ thru in between. The three standards are much less well defined. This is the effect of the two U.FL connectors on the Demo Kit, the PCB trace between them and the U.FL pigtail. I can't say which one had a stronger effect.

Measurements of the thru on the Deepelec Demo Kit.

This is the same measurement, but with the thru on the Deepelec Demo Kit. Interestingly, it shows a much worse picture. I was so surprised that I repeated the measurement to make sure I was getting a consistent result. The thrus on both Demo Kits are effectively the same, with the only obvious difference being the dimensions of the PCB trace and the gaps to ground.

It seems unlikely this is an effect of the U.FL connectors. They seem identical on both boards and the connectors would also ruin the response of other standards. The most suspect is the 4 mm long trace between the connectors. Deepelec's trace does look a bit too narrow for 50 Ω on a typical two layer board. My guess is it's about 50 mil wide, with a 20 mil gap to ground. This makes the gap too small for a microstrip mode. A co-planar wave guide model with some typical PCB parameters gives a characteristic impedance of about 125 Ω, not accounting for the effect of the solder mask filling the gap.

For 3 GHz, the 1/10 wavelength rule is between 5 and 10 mm, depending on the velocity factor. The trace for the thru is about 4 mm long so it's surprising to me that it would have this much of an effect, even if the trace has a wrong characteristic impedance. However a quick simulation of the measurement did in fact show very similar results if I used a 4 mm, 125 Ω transmission line segment as a thru:

Simulated effect of a 4 mm, 125 ohm transmission line segment.

In summary, the SOLT calibration standards on the NWDZ RF Demo Kit seem to be better than on the Deepelec one. The return loss of the load standard is slightly better and the open standard is more accurately described with the fringing capacitance model at high frequencies. The thru on the NWDZ is significantly better compared to Deepelec, which seems to have a significant impedance mismatch.

I need to stress that these Demo Kits sell for about 20 €, which is an order of magnitude less than similar, semi-professional kits. A cal-kit with a brand name will have at least one more figure in its price on top of that. They can't really compare. The RF Demo Kits I've tested are mostly meant to be used with the NanoVNA that works best up to a few hundred MHz and are perfectly fine as a learning tool.

Posted by Tomaž | Categories: Analog | Comments »

Inside a 3.5 mm plug from old Bose headphones

28.08.2021 10:16

Some time ago my dad told me about a problem he was having with a new ham radio transceiver. The transceiver has a RS-232 serial interface in a 3.5 mm stereo socket in the back panel. Connections that would normally be used for left and right audio channels are used for data RX and TX instead. Since the transceiver didn't come with a suitable cable my dad made his own: he found an old cable with a molded 3.5 mm plug on one end and soldered the other end to a DB-9 connector he could plug into his PC. However no matter what he tried, he could not get the digital interface working.

Surprisingly, we traced the problem to his adapter cable. Even though the multimeter showed that the cable had continuity on all cores and that no lines were shorted, the digital signals that passed through it came out distorted on the oscilloscope. I was curious what was going on, so I took the cable home with me for some more investigation. I commonly re-use the 3.5 mm plugs from old headphones as well and have never came across a problem like this before.

This is the 3.5 mm plug molded onto the end of the cable in question. It has nice gold plating on the contacts and a no-expense-spared molding with a combination of hard plastic and a soft rubber-like overmold. It probably once served some higher-end Bose headphones.

The 3.5 mm stereo plug on the end of the suspect adapter cable.

First thing I did was to measure the frequency response of the cable in the audio frequency range. I connected the stimulus signal to the 3.5 mm connector and measured the gain and phase of the signal coming out of the other end of the cable. This is the resulting Bode plot:

Measured frequency response of the adapter cable.

Obviously there is something more going on in this cable than just normal copper connections. At these frequencies I would expect to see practically flat, 0 dB gain and next to no phase shift across the cable. Instead, there seem to be a -10 dB band stop filter with a center frequency of around 2 kHz somewhere inside.

I found it unlikely that the actual cable was doing the filtering, so I focused on the molded handle around the actual 3.5 mm connector. After some application of unreasonable force it still refused to fully come apart. It did reveal what looked like tops of two MLCCs molded into the plastic. However it seemed that if there is some more electronics inside removing the rest of the plastic by force would also destroy the circuit.

3.5 mm plug with the partially removed molding.

Since I heard that acetone sometimes dissolves potting compounds I put the connector into a glass of acetone-base nail polish remover. I then forgot about it, so it soaked in the acetone for about 2 months. Still, this didn't have as much effect on the plastic as I thought it would. It did make it brittle enough so that I could chip it away until I revealed a small double-sided printed circuit board with a few passive SMD components:

Circuit board inside the 3.5 mm plug handle, bottom side.

Circuit board inside the 3.5 mm plug handle, top side.

The circuit board is marked "YODA" Ver A. Apparently someone working at Bose was a Star Wars fan. If I read the date code correctly this board was produced in 2005. The circuit is symmetrical and has two identical parts for the left and right channel. Each half consists of 2 multi-layer ceramic capacitors and two chip resistors. Tracing the circuit revealed this schematic:

Schematic of the filter circuit embedded in the 3.5 mm plug.

Note that the resistances in the circuit are low enough that a typical multimeter on continuity setting will see them as a short. This is what made debugging the initial problem so frustrating.

I couldn't get a reliable measurement of the capacitors, so 10 μF was a bit of a guess here. However simulating the response of this circuit in SPICE shows that it behaves similarly to what I measured before I destroyed the connector:

Simulated frequency response of the filter circuit compared to the measurement.

Why did Bose go into the trouble of embedding this circuit into the connector? I'm guessing they wanted to improve the frequency response of their headphones. Maybe the speaker has a mechanical resonance at 2 kHz and the filter circuit damps that electrically? I don't know much about hi-end audio engineering. This article mentions passive correction filters that are placed in-line with a headphone cable to equalize the speaker response. While the circuit mentioned is a bit more complicated than the one I found, the one Bode plot they show is very similar to what I measured.

One quick test I found that is capable of detecting this specific circuit without any elaborate setup is setting the multimeter for a capacitance measurement and connecting the probes between one of the channels and ground. On a normal audio cable the multimeter reads some low capacitance, but in the case of the embedded filter it shows around 20 μF due to the two capacitors in the circuit.

In conclusion, it seems that not all connectors are merely connectors. When all other options fail it's worth doubting the most basic assumptions, like that a cable you're using is not actually behaving like a cable.

Posted by Tomaž | Categories: Analog | Comments »

Factory contents of a USB flash drive

19.08.2021 20:33

I recently bought a new USB flash drive. By chance I noticed that it didn't appear to be empty. The drive came pre-formatted with a VFAT file system that indeed did not contain any files when I took the drive out of the box. However the raw contents of the drive seemed to contain some data that was apparently written to it in the factory. Since I'm used to seeing just zeros or 0xff on new devices I was curious what was on it and whether it contains any hints on how these are tested in the factory.

ADATA S102 Pro 32 GB flash drive.

This is the flash drive in question. It's an ADATA S102 Pro 32 GB flash drive.

usb 9-3.3: New USB device found, idVendor=125f, idProduct=312b, bcdDevice=11.00
usb 9-3.3: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
usb 9-3.3: Product: ADATA USB Flash Drive
usb 9-3.3: Manufacturer: ADATA

This first thing I did was to dump an image of the drive in factory condition to a 32 GB file on my hard drive. I then used the binvis tool from Aldo Cortesi to visualize its contents.

The following picture shows just the first 32 MiB using the zig-zag curve. Beginning of the drive is in the top left corner. Offset increases from left to right and top to bottom:

binvis visualization of the flash drive contents.

There's mostly zeros in the first 16 MiB of the drive, with a few small isolated chunks of data and strings. At very the start there's the default partition table and the empty FAT. One of the other non-zero chunks has some recognizable strings referring to a burn-in test.

0101c000  41 44 41 54 41 20 55 46  44 20 20 08 00 00 00 00  |ADATA UFD  .....|
0101c010  00 00 00 00 00 00 56 5a  7e 33 00 00 00 00 00 00  |......VZ~3......|
0101c020  e5 73 00 74 00 20 00 66  00 69 00 0f 00 b5 6c 00  |.s.t. .f.i....l.|
0101c030  65 00 73 00 00 00 ff ff  ff ff 00 00 ff ff ff ff  |e.s.............|
0101c040  e5 42 00 75 00 72 00 6e  00 49 00 0f 00 b5 6e 00  |.B.u.r.n.I....n.|
0101c050  54 00 65 00 73 00 74 00  20 00 00 00 74 00 65 00  |T.e.s.t. ...t.e.|
0101c060  e5 55 52 4e 49 4e 7e 31  20 20 20 10 00 7b 83 be  |.URNIN~1   ..{..|
0101c070  74 52 74 52 00 00 84 be  74 52 03 00 00 40 00 00  |tRtR....tR...@..|
0101c080  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|

Other than that I didn't find anything interesting. This seems to be just a remnant of some filesystem metadata. Chunks are too small to contain actual test code and I didn't expect that to be on the drive anyway.

Following the first 16 MiB is a pseudo-random pattern. It starts at offset 0x1024000 and repeats every 4 MiB (4194304 bytes). Extracting just a single repetition of the pattern and plotting it with binvis reveals that it has some internal structure to it. This plot is using the gradient color map and the same zig-zag curve as before:

Visualization of the 4 MiB test pattern on the flash drive.

I also played around with different ways of distributing the pattern onto a grid using matplotlib. This is how it looks like when drawn onto a 2048 by 2048 grid. The plot is zoomed into just one corner of the pattern:

A different view of the test pattern.

I don't know the reason behind this pattern. It might just be some pseudo-random algorithm they are using and the values themselves don't matter. I don't recognize any obvious bit test patterns in it. It seems that on every 2048 byte line the byte values in the pattern increase using a different step. Histogram of byte values shows that all 256 values are represented approximately equally.

Interestingly, the test pattern does not continue throughout the entire 32 GB of the drive. It stops at approximately 3 GB. The drive just contains zeros after that. Does this mean that only the first 3 GB has been factory tested? Or maybe there was a bug in the process and only this first chunk didn't get zeroed out after the test while the rest of the drive did?

Posted by Tomaž | Categories: Life | Comments »

Wio RP2040 review

12.08.2021 7:44

I've been following the development of the ecosystem around the new RP2040 microcontroller from the Raspberry Pi Foundation. I've found the microcontroller interesting in the combination with MicroPython since it appeared suitable for development in high-level language while still offering reasonably good real-time performance. For the common low-level bit banging microcontroller stuff I'm not sure if Python beats C/C++. However as soon as any kind of networking is involved, I think using a high-level language is significantly easier. With all sorts of necessary error handling and multi-tasking, networking code quickly becomes unreadable in C.

Hence I've been curiously waiting for RP2040 development boards to appear that would integrate some kind of a network interface. The two products that were most prominent on my radar were Arduino Nano RP2040 Connect and Seeed Wio RP2040. Both were announced earlier this year, but were more or less unobtainable. In June however Seeed reached out to me and offered to send me a free sample of their Wio RP2040 development board in return for a review. Two months later I've finally got one on my desk.

Seeed Wio RP2040 mini dev board on top of its box.

Wio RP2040 itself is a surface-mount module with castellated holes suitable for machine mounting on custom PCBs. It contains just the RP2040 microcontroller, the radio and an integrated inverted-F antenna for connecting to a Wi-Fi network. Voltage supply for the module is 5 V, the GPIO pins use 3.3 V levels. There is also a 3.3 V regulator output pin available on the module, however I could not find any information on how much current you can safely draw for your own use.

To make development easier, Seeed also sells the module already mounted on the Mini Dev Board, which is what I got in the box you see above. The Mini Dev Board adds two LEDs, two buttons, a USB C connector and breaks out all the module pins to two 14 pin 100 mil headers. Schematic and PCB layout files are available for the Mini Dev Board, but not for the module itself.

Also worth noting is the declaration of an EU representative on the box. This is most likely related to the requirements of the European Radio Equipment Directive.

Wio RP2040 compared to Raspberry Pi Pico.

Compared to Raspberry Pi Pico, Wio RP2040 Mini Dev Board is slightly shorter and wider. It has a USB C connector instead of USB Micro for programming and getting power from a PC. In addition to the Pico's BOOT button, the Mini Dev Board also has a RUN button for manually resetting the microcontroller. There's also a power LED that is hard-wired to the power supply line.

Same as on Pico, the Mini Dev Board has space for 100 mil headers on its edge. The headers themselves are not included in the box, so if you want to mount this on a breadboard you need to supply and solder them yourself. GPIO 20, 21 and 22 are not available on the Wio RP2040 headers. They are probably used for communication with the wireless chip inside the module.

Curiously, I found zero information on which 2.4 GHz 802.11 b/g/n radio is used in the module. I'm yet to peek under the RF shield can, but I strongly suspect it hides an ESP8285 from Espressif. ESP8285 is a variant of the popular ESP8266 with built-in flash memory. This guess comes from the fact that the host name the module uses when obtaining an IP address from a DHCP server is espressif. The official firmware image also has a number of strings that mention ESP:

$ strings firmware.uf2|grep -i esp
o rp2040] %s | esp8285_ipconfig could'n get ip
[wio rp2040] %s | esp8285_ipconfig could'n get gateway
[wio rp2040] %s | esp8285_ipconfig could'n get netmask
[wio rp2040] %s | esp8285_config could'n get ip
couldn't init nic esp8285 ,try again please
esp8285 power off

Speaking of firmware, Seeed provides a firmware.uf2 file that contains a customized MicroPython interpreter with some added modules related to networking. Unfortunately, it's not clear at the moment what is the source used for building this file. Another problem is that the file linked from the Wiki seems to silently change without notice. Since July I've seen at least two files being distributed with the same name and URL but different contents.

The procedure for loading the firmware is the same as with Pico. Power up the module with BOOT button depressed and then copy the firmware image into the emulated USB storage device. Using rshell, this is how the module presents itself, running the firmware.uf2 downloaded on August 5:

$ rshell
Connecting to /dev/ttyACM0 (buffer-size 512)...
Trying to connect to REPL  connected
Testing if sys.stdin.buffer exists ... Y
Retrieving root directories ... 
Setting time ... Aug 05, 2021 07:43:39
Evaluating board_name ... pyboard
Retrieving time epoch ... Jan 01, 1970
Welcome to rshell. Use Control-D (or the exit command) to exit rshell.
> ls /pyboard
> repl
Entering REPL. Use Control-X to exit.
MicroPython v1.15 on 2021-07-06; Seeed Wio with RP2040
Type "help()" for more information.
>>> help('modules')
__main__          machine           uasyncio/funcs    urandom
_boot             math              uasyncio/lock     ure
_onewire          micropython       uasyncio/stream   uselect
_rp2              mqtt              ubinascii         usocket
_thread           network           ucollections      ustruct
_uasyncio         onewire           uctypes           usys
builtins          rp2               uerrno            utime
cmath             uarray            uhashlib          uzlib
ds18x20           uasyncio/__init__ uio
framebuf          uasyncio/core     ujson
gc                uasyncio/event    uos

The embedded flash filesystem is empty by default, however there are some extra importable modules available in the interpreter: network, mqtt and a few others. Again, unfortunately there is very little information on these, apart from a few examples in the Wiki. No source available as far as I can tell either. MQTT module seems similar to umqtt.simple described here with some differences - there is no check_msg() method, for example.

I didn't have much luck with using these networking Python modules. Some examples in the wiki are apparently outdated and I didn't manage to get any of them to a usable state.

Specifically, the firmware I was using seemed to have problems receiving data from the network. I could connect to the Wi-Fi network and successfully open a usocket to another host. Sending data using usocket.send() worked. However as soon as the socket received anything from the other end, the MicroPython interpreter would apparently crash and I could never get anything back using usocket.recv(). The program stopped running and the REPL would not respond. I couldn't connect to the board over USB anymore until I reset the processor using the RUN button.

I had similar problems with Seeed's MQTT example code. After fixing it to account for the fact that WLAN_UART class is not defined, Wio RP2040 connects to my MQTT broker. I can successfully publish messages and subscribe to topics from MicroPython. However as soon as some other client sends a message to the topic that the Wio RP2040 is subscribed to, the interpreter crashes. There's definitely something still alive running on the MCU because the broker keeps getting periodic MQTT pings from Wio RP2040. The Python code doesn't seem to be executing though and neither Thonny nor rshell will connect to it.

I tried to find the problem, but without the source and any kind of debug info I was pretty much stuck. I also asked my Seeed contact about it and after a week I have yet to receive a reply.

Update: On 17 August I received a MicroPython firmware image from Seeed that fixes the interpreter crashes related to the networking I describe above. They say that they will fix the image linked from the wiki at a later date.

Screenshot of Thonny with Wio RP2040 MQTT example.

It's obviously very early in the product cycle. I actually don't know if these modules have shipped in any quantity so far. Each time I check, they are out of stock and the banner on Seeed website currently says they will start shipping in September. Still, I was disappointed to see that networking, the main feature of this module, doesn't seem to be functional at the moment. It seems Seeed's customized MicroPython port still needs some work. There's also support for programming the module in C/C++ using Arduino IDE. I have not tried that, but it seems other people are not having much success with that either.

Apart from fixing the software, I hope Seeed also adds some more documentation in the future. Having examples is great, but the custom Python modules should come with a reference. If the firmware image is open source, instructions on building one would be welcome as well. I'm also missing a proper hardware datasheet with some electrical specifications for the module.

The problems I encountered are even more puzzling since Wio RP2040 seems to be focused on being a base for a product than a development board for one-off projects. Its bare-bones design doesn't include any extra sensors that Arduino is shipping on their RP2040 boards. This makes it less inviting for playing around compared to the kitchen-sink-included approach of the Arduino. On the other hand, that's obviously a feature when you're designing a custom board with only the peripherals you need. Seeed is also running a promotional campaign and gives you some free modules when using their assembly services.

Another thing worth noting is that with recently introduced EU import regulations, getting these modules shipped in small quantities from China is quite troublesome and expensive. Even when receiving this free sample I had to deal with import customs paperwork and pay approximately 20 EUR in VAT and processing fees. Add shipping costs and the 13 USD base price shown in the Seeed store effectively becomes around 50 EUR. On the other hand, I have noticed that the modules are listed on Mouser, so this might improve in the future.

In summary, this module promises to be a cheap and simple basis for small network-connected sensors and actuators. I like the simplicity of connecting to MQTT using a few lines of Python. Unfortunately, current software does no deliver on that promise and I can only recommend waiting until the quality improves.

Posted by Tomaž | Categories: Digital | Comments »

HackRF clock converter, 3

26.06.2021 10:48

I modified my HackRF with a small board based around the LPC6957 clock buffer. This allows me to connect a wider range of clock sources to its CLKIN input for a 10 MHz reference clock. Among other things, I can now synchronize HackRF to the ERASynth Micro I use in my vector network analyzer. In my last blog post I said I will share some more measurements on how the modified HackRF performs, so here are a few initial observations.

HackRF connected to the ERASynth Micro.

The measurements I talk about below were done with the HackRF antenna input connected to the RF output of the ERASynth Micro through a short piece of a RG-316 coaxial cable and a 20 dB attenuator. ERASynth Micro was set up to output a CW signal at various frequencies at -20 dBm level. I also had the REF OUT from the ERASynth Micro connected to CLKIN on the HackRF. For measurements where I didn't want ERASynth Micro and HackRF running from the same clock source I left the cable attached to CLKIN and disabled the CLKIN input using hackrf_clock --clkin 0.

The first thing I noticed when testing the clock converter modification was the fact that at some frequencies the phase noise appears higher at around 100 kHz offset when HackRF is running from an external clock. As I mentioned in my last post this was already noticeable in the waterfall plot of the spectrum analyzer application. Difference is even more obvious in the following plot of the apparent phase noise of the signal at 2420 MHz.

Apparent phase noise in digital baseband at 2420 MHz.

The plot shows spectral density calculated using the Welch's method from a 10 s long recording of digital I/Q samples from the HackRF at 8 MHz sampling frequency. This plot does not show phase noise of the actual signal on the wire. I have no instruments available to directly measure that (however the spec for ERASynth Micro phase noise is much lower than what I measured - I show the comparison in this post). The plot shows the apparent phase noise of the sine wave in the digital domain, including the contributions of both HackRF and ERASynth Micro.

A signal at 1000 MHz doesn't show a significant increase when CLKIN is enabled, however the interesting part at around 100 kHz offset it is obscured by some spurs:

Apparent phase noise in digital baseband at 1000 MHz.

My understanding is that at these offset frequencies the phase noise is largely defined by the various PLLs in HackRF. The synchronization itself shouldn't matter. As I said last time, I suspect the difference is because of different PLL settings in HackRF. When CLKIN is disabled, HackRF derives all internal clocks from a 25 MHz quartz oscillator. When CLKIN is enabled, it uses the 10 MHz reference, hence requiring a different multiplier in the first stage PLL that converts the reference to a 800 MHz clock.

For my specific application in the vector network analyzer the far-off phase noise is less important than the stability of the signal over periods of time in the range of 1 to 10 ms. This is because I use a time multiplex to compare the phase of the reference and measured signals. The assumption in this type of measurement is that the reference signal has a stable phase over one period of the time multiplex.

On the phase noise plots above, stability over this range of time intervals is shown beyond the left edge of the graph. However it's difficult to show this in the frequency domain since it requires Fourier transforms over a very large number of samples and at least my naive approaches ran out of computer memory. Hence I rather explored this in the time domain.

Setup for measuring phase stability.

This is the block diagram of the setup. The 10 MHz TCXO in the ERASynth Micro is the single reference frequency source. Two PLLs in the ERASynth Micro convert this reference into the 2420 MHz RF signal on the coax. HackRF then uses a complicated circuit that involves multiple PLLs, frequency conversions and an analog-to-digital conversion to convert the RF signal to a 2 MHz digital intermediate frequency. I then use a digital LO on the computer to convert the signal to DC and measure its phase angle.

A typical plot of the detected phase angle in degrees over a course of 100 ms looks like this. The plot is similar for other RF frequencies:

Phase stability of the received CW signal.

I was somewhat surprised that I still get this kind of random walk in signal phase, even when everything is running from a single clock source. I've seen it sometimes drift up to ±30 degrees. My understanding was that at these time scales the PLLs should largely track their reference clock and not contribute to the stability of the signal, so I'm not sure where this is coming from.

On the other hand, the whole system is very complicated and I find it hard to understand all the parts. Especially HackRF is internally much more complicated than I initially thought. It includes many nested layers of PLLs distributed through different chips and so far I failed to get a good high-level picture of how various parts affect could phase stability.

In conclusion, the clock converter board seems to work, but it has some side effects I didn't anticipate, like the unusual increase in phase noise at 100 kHz offset. The clock synchronization itself also didn't help as much as I thought it would in improving the accuracy of my vector measurements. However it did lead me to better explore the properties of the whole system and I found some other improvements I can make.

Posted by Tomaž | Categories: Analog | Comments »

HackRF clock converter, 2

18.06.2021 20:18

Last time I was writing about making a small modification for the HackRF to expand the range of signals that can be fed into the external 10 MHz reference input. My initial motivation for it was to sync the ERASynth Micro frequency synthesizer and HackRF in my home-made vector network analyzer. However I thought it might be more broadly useful, so I designed the PCB to fit nicely into off-the-shelf HackRF enclosures. I've now assembled a prototype, verified that it works and written the necessary HackRF firmware and host tools code to support the clock converter circuit.

Clock converter board mounted onto the HackRF.

I installed the clock converter into my HackRF as I described in my previous post. I cut the PCB trace on the HackRF that connects the center pin of the CLKIN SMA connector and the pin 2 of the P22 header. I then soldered three thin wires between the SMA connector and the input on the clock converter board. Two outer wires are ground and the center wire carries the 10 MHz signal. They are quite short. I could use a short coax for this, but wires were simpler and I think that the impedance mismatch of this length won't matter much at 10 MHz.

HackRF with the clock converter modification installed.

I've put a footprint for an extra edge-mount SMA connector on the clock converter board. This way it can be used without any destructive modifications to the HackRF. However cutting the trace makes it possible to use the existing connector for connecting the HackRF to an external reference, same as before the modification. This way the modified HackRF fits into cheap off-the-shelf enclosures that provide some extra vertical space above the base PCB. The original molded plastic enclosure is too low unfortunately.

HackRF mounted in a metal enclosure.

The LTC6957 chip on the clock converter is turned on and configured through spare GPIOs on the HackRF's ARM CPU. It is disabled by default using some pull ups. Hence the HackRF should work as before if the converter board is plugged in but the firmware doesn't know about it. To actually use it, a patched firmware must be uploaded to the HackRF's MCU.

The firmware modifications are largely just boiler plate code that is needed to toggle GPIO pins based on requests over USB. Most of the new code is in clock_conv.c file.

The original README has instructions on how to build and upload the firmware. I didn't have any problems with that on a stock Debian Buster system. Remember to reset the MCU after uploading new firmware using hackrf_spiflash -R.

The only thing that was slightly confusing was the firmware version string that is reported by hackrf_info. The version string is made automatically from the current git tag, or commit SHA1 if tag doesn't exist. However, it only seems to get refreshed when making a new build directory with cmake, not when merely running the build with make.

For the host tools side of things, I patched the new hackrf_clock tool. I added two new command-line arguments: --clkin can be used to enable or disable the LTC6957 and hence the CLKIN input. --clkin-filt can be used to adjust the LTC6957 input filter bandwidth.

You can verify that the HackRF's PLL has locked onto the external reference using hackrf_debug as described in the wiki:

external reference disabled
$ hackrf_clock --clkin 0
$ hackrf_debug --si5351c -n 0 -r
[ 0] -> 0x51

external reference enabled
$ hackrf_clock --clkin 1
$ hackrf_debug --si5351c -n 0 -r
[ 0] -> 0x01

I will post some more detailed measurements of the performance of the modified HackRF later. For now, the simplest way to see the effect of the external clock is to check the frequency offset between HackRF and another device. Here are two screenshots of HackRF Spectrum Analyzer. In both cases I had the antenna input of the HackRF connected to ERASynth Micro via a coaxial cable and some attenuators. ERASynth Micro was set to output a 2420.000 MHz signal. Also, the REF OUT of ERASynth Micro was connected to CLKIN on the HackRF:

Spectrum of a 2.420 GHz signal with CLKIN disabled.

This is with the CLKIN disabled (--clkin 0). The signal appears on the spectrum display with an approximately 22 kHz offset, since the ERASynth Micro and the HackRF use their internal quartz references which have slightly different frequency offsets.

Spectrum of a 2.420 GHz signal with CLKIN enabled.

This is with the CLKIN enabled (--clkin 1). Now the signal appears exactly at 2420.000 MHz since both devices are synchronized to the common 10 MHz reference (in this case, the TCXO in the ERASynth Micro). Of course, that doesn't mean that the signal is really exactly at 2420.000 MHz, just that both devices now exactly agree on what 2420.000 MHz is.

One interesting thing to note is that the lower screenshot also shows a slightly increased level of phase noise around the signal peak. As far as I can see, this is not due to the clock converter board. Even when CLKIN is used on an unmodified HackRF, received signals seem to exhibit slightly increased phase noise compared to when the internal quartz oscillator is used. I also tried this with a different 10 MHz source, so it's not due to ERASynth Micro either.

I didn't investigate this further. It might be that all my 10 MHz sources are noisy. Another possible cause could be different settings in HackRF's SI5351C. The SI5351C uses a PLL to convert either 25 MHz from the internal quartz or 10 MHz from the CLKIN into a 800 MHz clock. This 800 MHz signal is then used to generate all other clock signals in the HackRF. It might be that the higher PLL divider value (80 versus 32) contributes to this effect.

If you want to modify your HackRF like this, you can find the hardware design files in my hackrf-clock-conv GitHub repository. The modified firmware can be found in my fork of the HackRF repository. If you don't want to bother with making and soldering the PCB yourself, I'm also still collecting interest for a small production run of these boards. Send me an email if you are interested.

Posted by Tomaž | Categories: Analog | Comments »

HackRF clock converter

06.06.2021 10:24

HackRF can use an external 10 MHz reference clock instead of the built-in crystal oscillator. The CLKIN input accepts a DC coupled, CMOS-level, 3.3V square wave signal since it's connected directly to the digital input pin on the SI5351C PLL chip. I want to run my HackRF from the 10 MHz reference signal generated by my ERASynth Micro. Unfortunately, the TCXO output from the ERASynth Micro is an AC coupled, sinewave-ish signal and hence not directly compatible with the HackRF's CLKIN. While I've seen reports that sine wave signals on CLKIN also tend to work, I wanted to make a proper interface that didn't drive the SI5351 input outside of its rated signal levels.

HackRF CLKIN input line highlighted on the schematic.

In the future I might also want to synchronize the HackRF to other clock sources and I think a DC coupled, CMOS-level output is quite rare on instruments. Hence modifying the HackRF to accept a wider range of signals on the CLKIN connector seems useful to me.

I very much copied the idea for the circuit design from the Osmocom project's osmo-clock-conv. osmo-clock-conv is a stand-alone board that uses an Analog Devices LTC6957 clock buffer to convert a wide range of clock signals into a CMOS-level square wave. The LTC6957 is a specialized chip for this purpose that introduces very little additional phase noise and jitter into the signal during conversion. It should perform much better than, for example, a diode and a Schmitt trigger "self-biasing clock squarer" circuit with a similar function in the osmo-clock-gen.

I could have just used osmo-clock-conv board directly, or in fact I could just order the LTC6957 evaluation board and connect it via a coax to CLKIN. However I felt like making a more elegant solution that would be more tightly integrated with the HackRF. HackRF offers quite a lot of possibilities through various extension headers on its circuit board. The header P22 is connected to CLKIN and can be used to add add a custom circuit that supplies the reference clock signal. Adding a small TCXO board to P22 is quite popular and there are HackRF enclosures readily available that leave enough space for the TCXO mod. Hence adding a small clock converter circuit in place of the TCXO should be relatively straightforward and I could get a nice enclosure off-the-shelf that would nicely fit my modified HackRF.

3D render of the HackRF clock converter circuit board.

The circuit required to support the LTC6957 is quite minimal, so it wasn't hard to cram it all into a small two-layer board that will sit in the corner between P22 and P20 headers. Compared to the typical TCXO mod that only mounts onto the P22 I decided to also use the P20 header. This both makes it a bit more mechanically stable as well as gives me access to some unused GPIO lines on the HackRF's LPC4320 CPU.

I designed the input circuit to be 50 Ω terminated and hence work best with 50 Ω sources. The input is AC coupled and should work with AC or DC coupled sources. The converter should work with square wave signals with amplitudes between 0.8 V and 8 V peak-to-peak (when measured without a 50 Ω load) and sine wave signals with levels between -4 dBm and +16 dBm.

The LTC6957 has some digital inputs that affect its operation. This includes setting filter bandwidth (useful for adjusting for a sine wave or a square wave input) and turning the clock conversion on and off. osmo-clock-conv uses jumpers to configure those, but since I had GPIO lines available I simply used those. This makes the LTC6957 configurable from software. I also wanted to make sure I can power down the LTC6957 on request - LTC6957 with a floating input will likely produce a random clock signal and I don't want the SI5351 to lock onto that if I leave CLKIN unconnected. With the LTC6957 output disabled, the SI5351 should automatically switch back to its own crystal oscillator.

The LTC6957 has two identical outputs. The second one isn't used on the board, but I wired it to an AUX header in case it later turns out to be useful.

Position of the clock converter board on the HackRF.

The only hairy part of this design is the fact that the HackRF offers no clean way for an extension board to sit between CLKIN and the SI5351 clock input. The P22 header only allows a board to be connected in parallel to the clock line (see the schematic at the top of the post). There is also no series element on the clock line that can be desoldered to isolate the CLKIN from the SI5351.

What I plan to do is cut the trace on the HackRF PCB going from the CLKIN connector to the SI5351 right before it connects to the P22 header. I then plan to use a short piece of coax, or simply a pair of thin wires, to connect the original CLKIN SMA connector to the input of my clock converter board. This way the external clock signal will enter through the original CLKIN connector, go through a wire jumper to the clock converter board. After conversion the signal will then go back onto the HackRF board through P22.

I also left a footprint for an edge-mount SMA connector on the clock converter board. This makes it possible to use it without modifying the HackRF PCB by having a separate SMA connector for the clock converter input. I probably won't be using that since the additional connector will not fit in existing HackRF enclosures.

I'm currently waiting for the PCBs, which should arrive any day now. I was lucky to get what appears to be the last two LTC6957-3 chips on the market, so I should be able to assemble the board and test its design shortly. I also still have to write the software. Unfortunately, the HackRF firmware doesn't provide a general way of controlling the spare GPIOs so I will have to modify and recompile it. I did some quick tests and I don't think that will be much of a problem. The latest firmware release also introduces a new hackrf_clock utility and I'm hoping I can integrate with that.

I'll be publishing the designs and the firmware patch after I verify that it works as intended. If you're also interested in modifying your HackRF like this, please drop me a mail. I might do a small production run of the clock converter board after the current component shortage passes if I see enough interest.

Posted by Tomaž | Categories: Analog | Comments »