On Kindle power supply

15.03.2013 21:22

Kindle's power supply (still talking about Kindle 3 that's been turned into a light-weight headless Debian box) is centered around MC13892. That is a power management integrated circuit (often referred to as PMIC in source code) specifically designed for powering Kindle's Freescale i.MX35 processor from a lithium-ion battery.

MC13892 power management circuit in Kindle 3

The chip itself hides under one of the shiny RF shielded enclosures and is connected to the main CPU over an SPI bus. The MC13892 datasheet reveals a very flexible chip that contains several configurable switching and linear power supplies, handles power on an USB bus and can work with a main and a backup battery. It also has peripherals like the real time clock, touch screen, temperature and light sensor interface and several programmable LED drivers.

Actually, it's interesting that Kindle 3 already seems to have much of the hardware needed to implement a touch screen and a screen with a front light even though these features only appeared in much later models. Also interesting to note is that the e-ink has its own separate power supply, so a lot of the MC13892 functionality appears unused.

Talking about unused functionality, MC13892 also has a Coulomb counter that can accurately integrate battery current to predict its life time. This also appears unused as the battery module itself seems to integrate a management circuit with an I2C bus. As far as I can see the built-in software actually uses information from that instead of MC13892. libgasgauge.so suggests it might be one of the Texas Instruments products.

Apart from curiosity, I also looked into this topic to find a most convenient way to power my Kindle without a battery attached. I'm powering my device from an outlet so it doesn't make sense to waste a perfectly good Li-ion battery by keeping it constantly connected to a charger.

Kindle 3 with a power supply adapter attached.

However, as many people on the web with dead Kindle batteries found out, Kindle won't boot with no voltage on the battery connector. Looking into the supply tree in the MC13892 datasheet it's apparent that the battery voltage is the central point from which all other parts are powered. The datasheet also explicitly states that the MC13892 will not power up the CPU unless it detects a valid voltage on the battery, even if power is available from the USB interface.

Unfortunately, this check cannot be fooled by a high-impedance voltage source in place of the battery (I tried), which means that the only way to power it up is to provide a proper voltage source capable of around 100 mA at 3.0 to 4.2 V.

Kindle 3 power supply adapter PCB.

This led to me to make this tiny power adapter that attaches to the main PCB instead of the battery. It provides all the power for Kindle's main board which has another benefit of freeing up the USB connector for any future hacks (switching to USB host mode would be nice).

My random parts bin contained a small Nokia charger (recently donated as broken) that gives somewhere between 6.0 to 5.5 V under load. Unfortunately that's a bit too high for Kindle's battery input (absolute maximum rating 4.8 V). Instead of tearing the charger apart and adjusting its voltage feedback, I opted for a small low-drop regulator (also salvaged from a random piece of broken electronics) on the adapter itself to lower the voltage to 4.2 V.

I guess using a dissipative regulator like this ruins a bit the wonderful power efficiency of Kindle's hardware, but at a few tens of milliamps of typical current draw it hardly gets warm to the touch.

Posted by Tomaž | Categories: Analog


I know this is an old project, but I came across it while looking for a use for a Kindle 3 with a battery that won't hold charge. For your power supply what (if anything) did you do with the SCA and SCL connections?

I took out the battery and connected 4.5 V across the +/- battery terminals and run the Kubrick software to reflash it. The kindle boots OK but quickly goes to an Empty Battery screen. I was wondering if I had to provide a particular voltage to the SCA or SCL connections.

Posted by Eleanor

Eleanor, SDA and SCL connections are for the I²C bus. The Kindle battery has a battery management chip in it. Original Amazon firmware uses it to determine how much energy is left in the battery.

In my charger I left them open, because I run my own firmware on the Kindle and I don't use it. If your firmware expects to see the battery management chip on the I²C bus it is not trivial to fake that (it would require a microcontroller I guess).

Posted by Tomaž

Thanks, that makes sense, it looks like its a new battery or
Debian firmware. I was thinking of using the kindle for a display for data gathered from a home monitoring system.

Thanks again

Posted by Eleanor

I would just like an opinion please.
I've had my Kindle3 for a few years, OS is up-to-date. No problems.

My Kindle 3 suffered a 2 ft drop. It started OK, ran OK, appeared OK. A week later, while being used it stopped.
I forced a re-boot using the start switch which succeeded, but it died again after a few minutes. I recharged. Seemed okay. After a few minutes of use it died again.

Replaced the battery (which had been waiting patiently for a few years), and recharged (2.5hrs).
Kindle started, and works okay. However, the charge remaining indicator on the Home screen doesn't vary. Always shows full charge.

Do you think this was caused by the drop and is a fault with the Kindle, or a fault with the battery management chip you mention above?


Posted by Tony

Tony, as far as I know, the value for the remaining charge indicator on the home screen comes from a "fuel gauge" chip that is embedded in the battery. If you replaced the battery, it might be that the chip in the new battery is bad. Or it might be that there is some fault on the I²C bus between the Kindle's CPU and the battery.

I have seen a Kindle that suffered similar random crashes. At that time I suspected the problem was that some of the solder joints between a chip in the Kindle and the circuit board cracked. I could make it crash by knocking on one of the chips. It was either the CPU or one of the other big BGA chips. It's hard to fix that. Reworking a SMD board with BGA chips is not trivial.

Posted by Tomaž

This may be of interest (Kindle Battery Surgery):

Probably the best blog on the kindle that I've seen so far. Very informative with some really helpful insights. Can't speak highly enough of it.

Posted by Gabriel Hogan

My Kindle 3 (keyboard) battery is dead due to long time no use. Can I connect the Kindle to a 3.7V battery with higher capacity (10000mAh, from a power bank)? How should I connect the pins?


Posted by LVu

Add a new comment

(No HTML tags allowed. Separate paragraphs with a blank line.)