One of the things that broke for me on upgrade to Debian Wheezy was smartcard support in Iceweasel. I regularly use a Schlumberger Cryptoflex USB key to authenticate on websites using client-side SSL certificates, so fixing this was kind of important to me.
OpenSC documentation is a mess and from terse error messages it was hard to make heads or tails of what was actually broken. So here's what I had to do make authentication work again in the browser.
First, fixing the most obvious thing: with the introduction of multiarch the PKCS #11 module has moved from /usr/lib/opensc-pkcs11.so to /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/opensc-pkcs11.so. This means you have to correct the path in Iceweasel. Go to Preferences, Advanced, Certificates, Security Devices and select the OpenSC module there. Click Unload to remove the module and then Load to load the module from the new path.
Also, you might have noticed that mozilla-opensc package was removed in Wheezy. I'm not sure if it was even required in the previous release, but it's definitely not needed now.
$ opensc-tool -l # Detected readers (pcsc) Nr. Card Features Name 0 Yes Axalto/Schlumberger/Gemalo egate token 00 00
Now for the tricky part. With the changes above, I still got a very helpful error message whenever I tried connecting to a secure website: A PKCS #11 module returned CKR_GENERAL_ERROR, indicating that an unrecoverable error has occurred. (Error code: sec_error_pkcs11_general_error).
Running a test with the pkcs11-tool showed that there was something wrong with the signing operation:
$ OPENSC_DEBUG=9 pkcs11-tool --module /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/opensc-pkcs11.so -t -l Using slot 1 with a present token (0x1) Logging in to "OpenSC Card (tomaz)". Please enter User PIN: C_SeedRandom() and C_GenerateRandom(): seeding (C_SeedRandom) not supported seems to be OK Digests: all 4 digest functions seem to work MD5: OK SHA-1: OK RIPEMD160: OK Signatures (currently only RSA signatures) testing key 0 (Private Key) ... lots of debug output skipped ... iso7816.c:103:iso7816_check_sw: Command incompatible with file structure card-flex.c:1067:cryptoflex_compute_signature: Card returned error: -1200 (Card command failed) sec.c:56:sc_compute_signature: returning with: -1200 (Card command failed) card.c:330:sc_unlock: called pkcs15-sec.c:380:sc_pkcs15_compute_signature: sc_compute_signature() failed: -1200 (Card command failed) card.c:330:sc_unlock: called reader-pcsc.c:548:pcsc_unlock: called framework-pkcs15.c:2721:pkcs15_prkey_sign: Sign complete. Result -1200. misc.c:59:sc_to_cryptoki_error_common: libopensc return value: -1200 (Card command failed) pkcs11-object.c:691:C_SignFinal: C_SignFinal() = CKR_GENERAL_ERROR error: PKCS11 function C_SignFinal failed: rv = CKR_GENERAL_ERROR (0x5) Aborting.
This seems to be a bug in the 0.12.2-3 version of the opensc package. Luckily, this is fixed in 0.13.0-3 that is currently in Unstable. Upgrading is pretty trivial and doesn't depend on upgrading a lot of other packages on the system.
With this upgrade in place, everything works again for me as it did in Squeeze.
Update: You might want to also upgrade libpcsclite1 and pcscd to versions from Unstable (1.8.10-1). With versions from Wheezy I'm still occasionally getting errors.